Measurement, Control, and Automation <p><em>MCA — Measurement, Control, and Automation</em> is an international peer-reviewed open access journal published quarterly by <a title="Vietnam Automation Association (VAA)" href="">Vietnam Automation Association (VAA)</a>.</p> <ul> <li><strong><span class="label openaccess">Open Access</span></strong>—free to download, share, and reuse content. Authors receive recognition for their contribution when the paper is reused.</li> <li><strong>Rapid Peer-Reviewed Process</strong>: First decisions in 21 days.</li> <li><strong>Recognition of Reviewers:</strong> APC discount vouchers, optional signed peer review, and reviewer names published annually in the journal.</li> </ul> Vietnam Automation Association (VAA) en-US Measurement, Control, and Automation 1859-0551 Comparative Analysis of SMC-LMI and LQR Controllers for Double Inverted Pendulum <p>This paper introduces an innovative method for achieving stability of the highly nonlinear and unstable double inverted pendulum using a combination of linear matrix inequality (LMI) techniques and sliding mode control (SMC). Sliding mode control is a widely used technique for stabilizing the highly unstable and nonlinear double inverted pendulum system. The LMI-based approach is well-suited for handling system uncertainties and constraints, making it a potent tool for robust control design. Compared to other nonlinear control methods, the LMI approach is more computationally efficient and simpler to implement. The controller proposed in this study is evaluated alongside the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) controller to demonstrate its superior performance. The simulation results obtained through the proposed controller demonstrate its effectiveness in stabilizing the double inverted pendulum.</p> Ma-Sieu Phan Thanh-Cong Do Van-Quy Truong Thi-Van-Anh Nguyen Copyright (c) 2023 Measurement, Control, and Automation 2023-12-01 2023-12-01 4 3 1 7 Numerical Investigation of the Online Parameter Estimation Techniques for Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines <p>This paper presents a new method to identify online four parameters of the interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM), including stator resistance, d- axis inductance, q-axis inductance and permanent magnet. The proposed method is based on the neural network with the training data taken from experiments. The input data taken from experimental measurement were preprocessed before feeding to the input of the neural network model. The proposed online parameters estimation method is evaluated by comparing the estimation accuracy with other conventional online methods, such as Extended Kalman Filter, Recursive Least Square and the Adaline Neural Network. Extensive numerical simulations have been conducted to verify the effectiveness and the accuracy of the proposed method</p> Xuan Minh Bui Le Khac Thuy Le Minh Kien Nguyen Trung Kien Nguyen Thanh Tien Pham Xuan Phuong Copyright (c) 2023 Measurement, Control, and Automation 2023-12-01 2023-12-01 4 3 8 15 Improved Carrier-based Modulation for Four-level Neutral Point Clamped Inverters <p class="AbstractBody">This paper proposes to implement an improved carrier modulation technique to reduce the distortion of voltage and load currents for the four-level NPC inverter. By changing the offset function compared to conventional carrier-based modulation methods, the proposed method adds a sub-offset component of the control voltage in the two-level inverter, causes the duty-time to hold the redanduncy state vectors to be evenly divided in a switching sequence, which improves the harmonic characteristics. Furthermore, this paper presents a strategy for changing the offset based on the idea of reducing the common mode voltage amplitude in order to expand the working area of the inverter to reach the modulation index m = 1 compared to the SinPWM (SPWM) method. From there, three improved carrier modulation techniques are proposed: Improved SPWM technique, Improved average offset technique and Improved Extended SPWM technique. The proposed techniques to improve harmonic distortion (THD), expand the operation region of inverter, shown by simulation results for 4-level NPC inverter.</p> Lê Nam Phạm Van Nho Nguyen Copyright (c) 2023 Measurement, Control, and Automation 2023-12-01 2023-12-01 4 3 16 24 A New Strategy of Magnetic Design for DC Power Optimizers in Photovoltaic Applications <p>This research introduces a novel approach to selecting and designing magnetic cores for DC power optimizers. Unlike traditional methods that depend on the Area Product ($ A_p $) and involve extensive trial and error to achieve the final design, the proposed methodology utilizes two essential parameters: the Core to Copper Loss Ratio ($ \gamma $) and the Window Utilization Factor ($ k_u $) for the inductor design process. The loss models of the inductor are formulated based on these variables, considering the impact of DC bias, a crucial factor that significantly affects the inductor in high magnetic field strength applications. To minimize the overall magnetic loss, a nonlinear programming technique is applied. The simulation results validate the effectiveness and rationality of the proposed magnetic models and optimization strategy. Therefore, this approach provides an efficient and effective alternative to the traditional trial-and-error approach for designing and selecting magnetic cores for DC power optimizers.</p> Dong-Thanh Vu Quoc-Khanh Ngo Quang Bui-Dang Duy-Dinh Nguyen Copyright (c) 2023 Measurement, Control, and Automation 2023-12-01 2023-12-01 4 3 25 31 ZV Shaper – ADRC Combination Control for Crane System with Constrained Control Signal <p>Gantry cranes are widely employed in various industries, including manufacturing and transportation. However, when used, the crane causes undesired cargo vibration, making it difficult to operate and &nbsp;workplace safety. Numerous crane control systems exist, but most are rather complex in controller design and practical implementation. Because of its ease of tuning, quick reaction, and robustness against changing process parameters, Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) is a viable alternative to standard Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controllers. However, in many flexible systems, ADRC controllers have little ability to decrease residual oscillation. The input shaping method, a commonly used feedforward control strategy for vibration suppression, can be implemented to address this issue. This paper proposed a hybrid controller that combines ADRC with input shaping to achieve accurate position control, low residual oscillation in the crane system. The condition of the controller parameter is given to ensure the input signal limits.</p> Tran Thanh Bao Nguyen Minh Duc Minh Đức Dương Trong Hieu Do Copyright (c) 2023 Measurement, Control, and Automation 2023-12-01 2023-12-01 4 3 32 38 Ld, Lq Inductance Computation of IPMSM by Magnetic Equivalent Circuit Tak-ing Leakage Flux and Magnetic Saturation Phenomenon into Account <p>The paper proposes the inductance calculation method in IPMSM using non-linear magnetic equivalent circuit. Analysis PMSM by magnetic equivalent circuit (MEC) greatly reduces computational cost compared to finite element method (FEM), but the accuracy also reduced significantly. We proposed the new MEC that increasing accuracy by including model of flux leakage phenomenon and magnetic saturation phenomenon. The proposed MEC is applied for IPMSM with V-shape magnet type. The results show that the difference between proposed method and FEM is less than 8%.</p> Học Pham Duy Định Nguyễn Đức Dũng Phạm Tiến Copyright (c) 2023 Measurement, Control, and Automation 2023-12-01 2023-12-01 4 3 39 46 Extended State Observer-inspired Robust Controller for Overhead Crane Payload Tracking and Anti-swinging Problems <p>This paper proposed a nonlinear three-dimension overhead crane with three moving including the moving of the cart along the x-axis and y-axis, the winding motion of the rope to track the load to the desired trajectory. However, there are a variety of uncertain components that affect the overhead crane system. Therefore, the extended state observer and the second-order sliding mode control are proposed to solve this problem. Moreover, the stabilization of the close-loop is also guaranteed through the Lyapunov function. Finally, the simulation and the comparison with other methods are provided to highlight the advantage quality of the observer and proposed control method.</p> Chung Nguyen Van Hieu Le Xuan Huy Nguyen Danh Lam Nguyen Tung Huế Lưu Copyright (c) 2023 Measurement, Control, and Automation 2023-12-01 2023-12-01 4 3 47 53 Soft Starting of High Power Three Phase Induction Motor: Theory and Applications <p>In most heavy-industry, three-phase asynchronous motors have become an inevitable piece of equipment that transforms electrical into mechanical power due to their simple and reliable structure. One major problem with the high-power motor is starting, since direct-on-line starting of high-power motors usually cause voltage sag and over-current which may affect other equipment in the same network. Besides, most heavy machines are sensitive to high acceleration and jerking of mechanical parts. So, having a thorough understanding of soft starting solutions for high-power three-phase asynchronous motors is extremely important to electrical engineers. In this research, the most being-used soft-starting solutions of three-phase induction motors are reviewed with in-depth analysis. Based on numerical simulations carried out with the two most popular loads: pump/fan and dry-friction, the reader can see the effectiveness of each soft-starting method intuitively.</p> Le Duy Vy Ho Dinh Hung Pham Bao Chung Linh Nguyen Copyright (c) 2023 Measurement, Control, and Automation 2023-12-01 2023-12-01 4 3 54 63 Enhance Control Performance of a Pneumatic Artificial Muscle System Using RBF-Neural Network Approximation and Power Rate Exponential Reaching Law Sliding Mode Control <p>This research focuses on the integration of a Radial-Basis-Function Neural Network (RBFNN) for uncertainty approximation in Pneumatic Artificial Muscle (PAM) systems within the framework of Power Rate Exponential Reaching Law Sliding Mode Control (PRERL-SMC). Configured in an antagonistic manner, PAMs provide a range of benefits for developing actuators with human-like characteristics. Nevertheless, their intrinsic nonlinearity and uncertain behavior are obstacles to attaining accurate control, particularly in rehabilitation scenarios where ensuring control precision is imperative for safety and effectiveness. The proposed method leverages a power rate exponential reaching law to ensure chattering-free control and swift convergence towards desired trajectories, while the RBFNN effectively approximates system uncertainties. Through comprehensive experiments, we compare the RBF-PRERL-SMC approach with conventional control methods, showcasing its superior performance in tracking various trajectories. Notably, our strategy proves robust against external perturbations, demonstrating its applicability in rehabilitation scenarios.</p> Viet-Thanh Nguyen Quy-Thinh Dao Copyright (c) 2023 Measurement, Control, and Automation 2023-12-01 2023-12-01 4 3 64 72 Advanced Predictive Model Controller Applied to Crane Model with Double Pendulum Effect <p><span class="fontstyle0">This study proposes a predictive model controller based on Lyapunov for a double pendulum crane system with variable sling length. The dynamics of the system are built by applying the Euler-Lagrange method. Based on the dynamic equation, a quadratic sliding mode control moves the load to the desired position while reducing the vibration when the rope length changes. However, the input states of the unit control and the control force are not strictly controlled. The controller ensures stability through the Lyapunov inequality constraint. Simulation is performed to validate the accuracy and efficiency of the controller. Due to the position accuracy requirements, slight oscillation angle, and transit time of the crane, the controller must be of high quality and suitable for each system to adapt to the nonlinear external influences, in addition to causing undesired oscillations.</span></p> Nguyen Thi Hien Hoang Thi Mai Luu Thi Hue Bui Thi Khanh Hoa Danh Huy Nguyen Nguyen Tung Lam Copyright (c) 2023 Measurement, Control, and Automation 2023-12-01 2023-12-01 4 3 73 78